AFFF Manufacturers Facing Legal Challenges: A Deep Dive into Lawsuits

Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, commonly known as AFFF, has been an essential firefighting tool for decades. Unfortunately, its extensive use has brought to light some alarming environmental and health concerns. This has led to a wave of legal challenges against the manufacturers of this firefighting foam. 

In this article, we’ll explore the legal challenges, allegations, and implications faced by AFFF manufacturers.

The Rise of AFFF Lawsuits

Aqueous Film-Forming Foam has been used extensively in firefighting and fire suppression due to its effectiveness in rapidly extinguishing flammable liquid fires. However, the key issue with AFFF lies in its composition, which includes per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), known as “forever chemicals.” These PFAS compounds do not break down easily and have been linked to various health issues and environmental contamination.

Amid growing concerns over widespread PFAS contamination in water, soil, and human bodies, legal actions emerged through the AFFF lawsuit

Prominent AFFF manufacturers, which include major chemical corporations, found themselves increasingly entangled in a web of mounting lawsuits. 

As of July 2023, a staggering total of 5,227 AFFF-related lawsuits were pending across the United States. These lawsuits reflect the increasing urgency to address the alleged health and environmental consequences associated with these firefighting foams.

The allegations against AFFF manufacturers:

Negligence and Product Liability

According to TorHoerman Law, AFFF lawsuits claim that manufacturers knew about the health and environmental risks of PFAS in their products. However, they are accused of neglecting to provide sufficient warnings to users or to implement essential safety measures. 

For instance, a former Air Force firefighter has initiated a lawsuit against AFFF manufacturers. He claims that his prolonged exposure to the firefighting foam during his military service led to the development of prostate cancer. In his case, he alleges that the responsible companies possessed knowledge of the potential health risks but chose to withhold these warnings from users.

Environmental Contamination

A substantial share of legal disputes is centered on environmental contamination stemming from the release of AFFF at various locations. This contamination has resulted in the pollution of crucial water sources and soil, causing harm to both ecosystems and local communities. 

Notably, recent findings have shown the presence of toxic per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in tap water samples collected from 18 U.S. states during May and June 2023. Startlingly, estimates from the United States Geological Survey indicate that a minimum of 45% of tap water samples may contain PFAS compounds. This underscores the widespread nature of this environmental concern.

Health Impacts

AFFF manufacturers are grappling with allegations that exposure to PFAS in their products has led to detrimental health consequences. These alleged health effects encompass a spectrum of issues, such as cancer, thyroid disorders, and developmental problems. 

Disturbingly, a study discovered that firefighters face a 9% elevated risk of cancer diagnosis compared to the general U.S. population and an even more concerning 14% higher risk of succumbing to this disease. 

These statistics underscore the potential health hazards linked to AFFF and PFAS exposure within the firefighting community.

Implications and Ongoing Litigation

The legal challenges against AFFF manufacturers have far-reaching implications:

Financial Consequences

If AFFF manufacturers are found liable in these lawsuits, they may be compelled to pay substantial settlements or damages. These would be directed to the individuals and parties who have been adversely affected by their products. 

Such financial obligations could significantly impact the manufacturers’ financial standing, potentially resulting in significant losses and reduced profitability. In extreme cases, these obligations could even pose a threat of bankruptcy.

Regulatory Scrutiny

The heightened legal attention on AFFF has triggered a corresponding increase in regulatory scrutiny by authorities. Regulatory bodies are considering stricter regulations due to growing concerns about the environmental and health risks associated with PFAS-containing firefighting foam. They are also contemplating outright bans on the use and production of these products.

This shift reflects a growing recognition of the potential harm posed by PFAS chemicals. It extends not only to those who use the foam but also to surrounding communities and ecosystems. 

Environmental Remediation

The legal actions surrounding AFFF and PFAS contamination have catalyzed concerted efforts to remediate affected areas, particularly those contaminated water sources and soil. 

Recognizing the far-reaching consequences of PFAS pollution, federal and state authorities have taken action. Environmental agencies have also intensified their efforts to address these pressing issues. This includes implementing cleanup programs and strategies to remove or mitigate PFAS contamination from affected sites.

Public Awareness

As these legal battles have unfolded, they have brought to light the potential health and environmental hazards posed by PFAS-containing firefighting foam. This increased awareness has, in turn, empowered the public to demand safer alternatives in industries and products using PFAS.


AFFF manufacturers are facing a wave of legal challenges due to concerns over the environmental and health impacts of their products. As lawsuits continue to unfold, the outcomes will have significant implications for manufacturers, affected communities, and the firefighting industry as a whole. 

With growing awareness, it is likely that regulatory changes and increased scrutiny will shape the future of firefighting foam and environmental protection.